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As is widely known, three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered in water. Undoubtedly, oceans form the major portion of it. Oceans are rich sources of marine life and natural resources. 
Oceanographers undertake a scientific study of various features of the oceans. They are concerned not only with what lies within the oceans but also the land-ocean boundaries and peculiarities of different oceans.
Marine Biology 
The variety of marine life in terms of animals and trees is remarkable. Marine biologists study the diversity, distribution, life patterns and ecology of sea life.
Physical Oceanography
As varied as marine life, the physical characteristics of different water bodies are also distinctive. Study of ocean currents, natural forces active in seas, impact on climate and study of water masses is undertaken.
Geological Oceanography
Location of mineral resources, study of marine structures, analysis of sea floor and research into rock formations is carried out.
Chemical Oceanography
Impact of waste and pollution on oceanic chemistry, availability and distribution of chemicals, study of chemical reactions and recovery of chemical substances is handled.
Marine archaeology
Background Required
Study of sciences is a must.
Qualities Required
A spirit of adventure
Ability to withstand turbulent weather conditions
Research Institutes
Oil refineries
Geological Survey institutes
Meteorological survey institutions

System Analyst

Software solutions are very wide in their scope of applications. Depending on the requirements of an organization, suitable software packages and solutions are used. 
A system analyst’s job is to design software solutions, keeping the organization’s needs in mind. For this purpose, knowledge of the firm’s operations is essential.
Background Required
High exposure to various software packages and their applications
An understanding of the suitability of different software packages for possible requirements 
As the software industry grows, newer platforms and solutions keep being developing. The applications of these need to be properly understood. There will always be good scope for system analysts, because IT-enabled services will always increase. 

System Administrators

Whereas computers are widely used, only a few professionals are well-equipped to take care of back-end operations. Majority of those who operate computers need only to focus on the applications on which they need to work. 
System administrators are specialists, who load the operating systems on computers and take care of other key functions.
Installation of required software on computers
Taking back-ups of sensitive data, for emergency
Protect the computers from viruses, by installing and upgrading the latest versions of anti-virus software
Prevent unauthorized access to computers and information, by implementing suitable firewalls
Maintain the operating systems that are loaded on computers
Troubleshooting – attending to any users’ problems relating to above areas
Information technology is a continuously evolving field, at a fast pace. As its applications keep diversifying, it’s usage will only increase. More the use, more is the need for ensuring that users operate without any hassles, at high productivity levels. 
System administrators, who ensure efficient use of technology, will always be in good demand. 

Network Engineer

Computers are connected through networks. The computers of a network share resources such as files, printers and data. 
A network engineer is responsible for all stages of a network – right from conceptualizing it and maintaining it.
Responsibilities handled
Devising a suitable network, as per organizational requirements
Installing required software (operating systems, device drivers)
Creating authorized user profiles
Giving different types of access to different users, as per needs
Install hardware (printers, computers, cables to connect computers, cards, modems)
Take precautions against unauthorized access, through setting up firewalls
Take back-ups of any sensitive information and data
Background required
Thorough understanding of hardware and software
Continuous upgrading skills
As sharing of common resources through computers is quite common, the demand for network engineers is good. With increase in centralized location of information and dispersed access to it, the scope for networking professionals will also increase.

Defense Forces

Retaining its territorial integrity is as important as economic development, for a country. Defence forces (army, navy and air force) are the sole defendants of a nation’s borders. Whenever any territorial aggression is perpetrated against the country, the defence forces spring into action. 
Qualities required for a career in defence forces 
Courage – to fight enemies of the country
Fiercely patriotic
Disciplined – to follow strict rules of behaviour
Sense of responsibility – to handle team work
Good physique and stamina – not only to withstand physical training, but also wars
A spirit of adventure
Entry into defence forces
NDA (National Defence Academy) - A national level test and interview is conducted for recruiting those who have passed 10+2 
Combined Defence Services - For graduates’ entry, for absorption later into either IMA (Indian Military Academy) or Naval Academy or Air Force Academy
SSB (Service Selection Boards) and AFSB (Air Force Selection Board) – for direct recruitment of officers.
University Entry Scheme, for direct recruitment of third or fourth year engineering students
Short Service Commission (Tech) Entry Scheme – for recruiting qualified technical graduates
NCC ‘C’ Certificate holders with minimum of ‘B’ grading and 50 per cent in graduation. Selected people are trained as Commissioned Officers.
Women Special Entry Scheme: to recruit women officers

Aerospace Engineering

Finding out more and more about celestial bodies has always been a passion for mankind. From making assumptions and theories about objects and phenomena in space, we have progressed to sending astronauts to moon and spacecrafts to the edge of solar system and beyond.
Aerospace engineering is concerned with design, analysis, development and manufacture of spacecrafts. A clear understanding of the forces to which the spacecrafts are exposed to, while being launched into space, during their stay in space and while descending back to earth need to be perfectly understood and tackled. 
Different spacecrafts are designed for different purposes. These range from collecting data about the earth, study the surfaces of planets, explore the solar system and research the effects of weightlessness.
Background required 
Study of sciences (physics and chemistry) and mathematics is a must right from 10+2 stage, through engineering and post-graduate studies.
Guidance & Control Systems
A career in aerospace engineering is for those who are very good students (academically) of sciences and mathematics and are passionate about this field. The opportunities are restricted to openings in government, research and manufacturing institutions.

Automobile Engineering

A very specialized field, automobile engineering is concerned with the design and manufacture of automobiles. The range of vehicles includes scooters, mopeds, scooterettes, bikes, cars, tractors, vans, jeeps, buses and even trains.
The most widely known and appreciated application has been in designing cars. In their attempts to woo customers, manufacturers of cars have given considerable attention to designing new look cars with unique features. 
Targeting different user groups for different vehicles, automobile engineers spend considerable time on research on customer preferences and technological developments. Their challenge lies in combining aesthetics, customer preference, manufacturing capability, fuel efficiency, maximum attainable speed, stylized looks, weight and manufacturing costs. For example, use of a particular material might enhance the appearance but add avoidable weight. 
As competition is infused into more and more sectors, automobile manufacturers need to be innovative right from design stage. Automobile engineers will be increasingly in demand.
Automobile engineers can also become consultants, advising several clients.


With production of goods and their consumption being miles away, the need to preserve the products in good condition has led to importance of packaging. Thanks to the importance and role of brands in today’s world, packaging has evolved far beyond its primary role. 
Increasing competition among manufacturers means distinguishing one’s products from that of competitors in every possible way. The roles played by effective packaging today are: 
Provide basic protection to the ingredients
Enhance display of brand and company logo
Attract customers’ attention through highly visible and distinctive colours
Provide convenience in carrying the product
Display instructions on handling the product
Display mandatory information such as price, contents, weight, dosage, month of manufacture, any expiry period, etc.
Depending on the product and purpose, variations in material of packaging need to be suitably used. The challenge lies in meeting all the requirements of effective packaging at an affordable cost. 
Specialized Institute
Indian Institute Of Packaging, New Delhi
Quality Assurance
Design & Development
One can hardly imagine a product that doesn’t need packaging. Given the range of products, the conditions of storage and transport, there’s enough scope for packaging experts in a variety of industries.

Geographic Information Systems

One of the advantages of computerization is that newer applications are always evolving.  
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is one such application. 
Handling of large diverse data and establishing relationships among related variables is possible, thanks to computer software. GIS uses several specifically designed software packages to handle data related to the diverse physical features on the earth. 
Typical applications of GIS are:
Mobile mapping of earth’s surface
Capture of data that is referenced spatially
Identifying locations of forests, minerals and other natural resources through analysis of aerial photographs.
Conversion of maps into a digital format
Monitoring of environment
New uses of GIS
Providing utility services to citizens, by close scrutiny of are-specific infrastructure available.
Complete digital mapping of localities, to identify location of easily distinguishable facilities.
Facilitate proper laying of underground cables
Plan efficiently distribution networks of goods and services
Management of transportation (For directional guidance)
Students of geology, geography, remote sensing and civil engineering are better suited to a career in GIS.
Specialized Institutes involved in applying GIS
NRSA (National Remote Sensing Agency), Hyderabad
Geological Survey Of India
NIC (National Informatics Center)
IIRS (Indian Institute of Remote Sensing) 
Institutes Offering Education in GIS
IITs (Indian Institutes of Technology)
RECs (Regional Engineering Colleges)
JNTU (Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University), Hyderabad.
As the usage of GIS is widely growing in both private and public sectors worldwide, there is good scope.


Bio-informatics is also an off-shoot of new applications of computers. Research in biology has advanced to the stage when the structure of human gene is being unraveled and protein structures are being solved. 
The advanced research in biology is necessitating handling of huge data for mapping of DNA structures with genes. This necessitates heavy use of computers. Bio-informatics involves developing relevant databases and software for handling the biological data.
Those with exposure to mathematics and biological sciences at graduate and post-graduate levels are best suited for a career in bio-informatics. Computer literacy is a must.  
Biotech companies
Pharma sector (for developing effective immunizations and vaccines)
With more and more exciting discoveries and inventions (such as cloning of DNA structures of animals and humans) in the pipeline, the demand for bio-informatics is likely to jump in future.


As is commonly known, dentistry deals with care of teeth and gums. What is not known as well is the scope for specialization in this profession. 
Beyond just fixing any teeth trouble, dentistry also plays a role in enhancing one’s physical appearance and preventing any diseases.
Endodontists – take care of dental pulp, by treating any injuries or diseases.
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons – treat any deformities in jaws or teeth through surgeries.
Pedodontists – dentists who specialize in treating children’s teeth.
Orthodontists – Handle adjustment and correction of dental bones and teeth.
Restorative Dentists – Handle decay of teeth, through dentures
Peridontists – take care of tissues and gums around the teeth
Rising health consciousness among people translates into preventive care of human body. Leading a healthy and disease-free lifestyle is becoming more and more prominent. 
More preventive care means more frequent visits to a dentist, to take a care of any problems in advance. Hence dentistry offers good scope for a career. Study of sciences, though, is a must at 10+2 stage.

Fire Service

Fire safety is a much neglected, but very promising career option. Awareness of this is very low, but specialized institutes and wide ranging scope exist for this profession.
Role of fire safety personnel
Analyse causes of fire
Study methods of fire prevention
Study fire retarding properties of different materials
Recommend fire safety procedures
Recommend safe storage procedures for potential hazardous elements
Specialized Institutes
National Fire Service College, Nagpur
Indian Institute of Fire Engineering, New Delhi
National Fire Academy, Vadodara.
These and other institutes and universities offer several courses – ranging from diploma and certificate courses to post graduate degrees in fire engineering.
Insurance companies, to assist in risk assessment
Airline Industry
Government fire services
Architects, to design buildings which meet fire safety requirements
Manufacturing industries, wherever fire officers are mandatory.


Advertising is part and parcel of everyday life. It’s there all around us – on radio & TV (between programmes), Internet (in the form of banners on top of web pages), hoardings (those on roadsides), in newspapers, magazines and cinema halls.
It has become an integral part of our life because of competition among companies who want us to be aware of their products and buy them. More the competition among them, more the use of advertising.
Qualifications Required
M.B.A, with specialization in Marketing, is the most commonly preferred communication, because advertising forms part of the curriculum.
Diploma in mass communication is also useful, for those who want to specialize in media (newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, internet). Studying effectiveness of different media in reaching out to targeted consumers forms the major focus of media department in an advertising agency.
A related degree in fine arts is required for Art department in an advertising agency.
Media – Studying the reach of different media to target consumers
Art Direction – Visually representing the components of an advertisement
Current Trends
As competition increases in the market, there is growing use of advertising and new media (such as internet) are opening new avenues.
Job Prospects
Bright, because the role and importance of advertising is increasing
Scope for entrepreneurship
Ad film making, media buying (to buy advertising space in media), modeling agency(arranging for models) are some of the areas where individuals can set up their own businesses.
Basic Talents Required
Operating on a wide canvas, advertising offers a career for those with skills in:
Abstract Thinking (Creative – offering innovative advertising solutions)
Fine Arts (Art Department)
Good inter-personal relations (Client Servicing department)
Writing (Copywriting Department)
Statistics (Media & Research departments)
Film Making (shooting of advertising films)


An important branch of mathematics, statistics today finds wide applications. Any handling of data needs some statistical tool for analysis. 
Background Required
A solid foundation in basic mathematics is a must. Having an aptitude for numbers is required. 
Specialized Institute
Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, having branches all over India.
Market Research – to estimate values from available ones, and establishing relationships among related data.
Business Organizations – where huge amounts of data is churned out.
Research Institutes, for establishing quantitative relationships between related variables
Research institutes


In simple terms, a retailer is nothing but a distribution channel between manufacturers and customers. As centralized manufacturing is cheaper and customers are widely dispersed, making the products available at a place nearer to the customer through retailers is a common practice.
As competition intensifies and products’ variety multiplies, the role of retailing becomes very critical. It is only through a retailer that a customer buys a company’s products. Hence, the need to focus on good retailer relations by companies.
As with products, competition exists even among retailers. As a result, retail networks also have to focus on customer ease and requirements. 
Areas focused in retailing
Inventory Management – Retailers have to maintain a stock of items / products ready for sale. As demand frequency and quantity for all products cannot be predicted with perfection, retailers have to maintain an inventory of products that are sold. Effective inventory management ensures that they don’t run out of stock of any item asked for by a customer. This requires careful planning, keeping into account the stock replacement frequency of their suppliers, time taken to replenish stock and demand pattern.
Customer Satisfaction – Increasing competition means that customer is King. The requirements may vary – in terms of brand, size, price, quantity and packaging. What retailers need to focus on is the ease of access of various items to customers, conveying desirable information about different items, neatly classifying products and maintaining a proper shopping environment.
Supply chain management – ensuring that whenever they need an item, alternative arrangements can be made to order that item through relationships with suppliers.
Providing a suitable ambience – in terms of shopping space, lighting, providing assistance to shoppers whenever needed, parking area, choice of items, etc. 
Specialized Institutes
The Retail Academy, Ahmedabad
Indira Institute of Retail Management, Pune
RPG Institute of Retail Management, Chennai.
Though people with exposure to business management concepts are preferred, there are plenty of opportunities for even graduates in retailing. Companies normally recruit and then give training.
Large scale proliferation of supermarkets, establishments of Hypermarkets and entry of multinational retail companies into India can only mean significant growth. 
Qualities Required
Pleasing personality, to interact with customers
Multiple language skills, to handle customers with different linguistic backgrounds


An important aspect of every business enterprise, accounting takes care of compiling financial records. At the lower end, it means making note of every financial transaction. At the higher end, preparation of a company’s financial balance sheet and making financial projections are involved.
Responsibilities of accounts department
Managing the financial resources
Keeping track of daily financial operations
Maintaining proper account books
Auditing of expenditures
Tax Planning
Banking transactions
Background Required
Proficiency in mathematics – to deal with numbers
Exposure to basic accounting principles and practices
Exposure to computers would be helpful, as use of several software packages for accounting is quite common.
Chartered Accountancy – covers economics, mercantile law
Cost & Works Accountancy – covers different costing concepts
Specialized Institutes
Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, New Delhi – with branches in major Indian cities
Institute Of Cost & Works Accountants of India, Kolkata – with branches in major Indian cities
Indian Institute of Finance, New Delhi
Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts, Hyderabad
As every commercial enterprise has the need for accountants, the demand for professionals will always be there. If one qualifies in national tests for any of the specializations, there’s good scope for consultancy.


A professional nutritionist is a specialist, who understands all aspects of nutritional needs and requirements of people. Depending on one’s lifestyle, people vary in their diet intake. Nutritionists have an in depth knowledge of ingredients of various food items, the harmful and beneficial effects of different food consumption patterns and nutritional qualities of food items.
With increasing health awareness among people, the value of right nutrition is getting increasingly recognized. The trend is to minimize risk of any health problems through proper nutrition. Due to lack of mass awareness about nutrition, the role of nutritionists is becoming more and more important.
Specialized Institutes
National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad
Home Science Colleges in different states.
Hospital and clinics – to prescribe proper nutrition for patients
Educational Institutes – for guidance to students in nutritional matters
Corporate guest houses 
Five star hotels
Food product manufacturing companies

Direct Marketing

Normally products or services are made available to customers through a chain of distributors. Manufacturing is centralized at one or few places, and the goods reach customers at a place near to them via multiple distribution channels.
In direct marketing, companies directly reach out to potential customers through their own employees or agents. As the number of distribution channels is reduced in this method, it’s beneficial to both manufacturers and consumers. With the reduction in distribution channels, the cost incurred in reaching out to customers becomes lesser to manufacturers. This also should translate into lower prices for customers.
Several direct marketing companies are being set up, to take advantage of leaner expenditures on advertising or sales promotion or dealer margins.  Many multinational direct marketers are also becoming more and more active players in India. Opportunities are opening up on a large scale.
Background Required
Most of the recruitments for direct marketing is done on following factors:
Good communication skills.
A pleasing personality – to interact effectively with customers
Persuasive Nature – to convince customers about products’ utility values
Outgoing nature – because it involves approaching total strangers and trying to sell a product or service to them. A shy and inhibited person would find this difficult to do so. 
Specialized Institute
National Institute of Sales (NIS)

International Trade

International trade is the commercial movement of goods or services across countries’ international borders. The reason for increasing international trade is that different products are manufactured best at different places and demand for those could be spread out worldwide. 
Typically companies spread out to other countries after their national markets are exhausted and they have surplus production. Another major reason could be making use of available skills to deliberately target export markets, manufacturing products which have ready international demand. In some cases, serving international market could be be financially more lucrative than national markets.
Whatever the reason, international trade is big business spanning across several countries and products. A career in this line is very attractive, but comes with a lot of additional skills which will have to be acquired. 
Background Required
M.B.A – to have a basic understanding of business philosophy and concepts of markets, products, marketing strategies.
Legal – to be aware of and adhere to national and international laws relating to business
Foreign language skills – familiarity with foreign languages would aid easier interaction with different countries’ personnel.
Awareness of cultural nuances – dealing with different cultures means being conscious of and respecting the local cultural and social habits. Being ignorant of this or neglecting these could be harmful professionally.
Specialized Institute
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), New Delhi. It offers a two-year post-graduate degree in international trade. Entrance is through annual nationwide test and interview.
A career in international trade would entail 
Lots of traveling
Exposure to different cultures
Experience of several international markets, which would develop a global perspective
At the national level, government actively encourages international trade, because through this foreign exchange is earned. The government gives tax rebates, duty concessions and other such incentives to promote international trade. 
On a global level, organizations such as WTO (World Trade Organization) and GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) continuously interact with different nations to open their borders to international trade. 
Moreover, several regional organizations such as EU (European Union), SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation), ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area) are also involved in increasing international trade among their member nations.
Given this scenario, global international business is always conducive. Therefore, multiple opportunities exist for a lucrative career in international trade.


Over the last decade, aquaculture has opened up lots of opportunities for Indians. Cultivation and growth of marine organisms that have a good global demand is fuelling the expansion in this industry. 
Some such marine organisms are specific varieties of fish, prawns, crabs, shrimps, lobsters, squids, etc. Scientific breeding is undertaken on large scale and they are marketed either in raw form or processed items. 
Exposure to biological sciences is a must.
Organizations such as MPEDA (Marine Products Export Development Authority) regularly conduct training programmes on aspects such as farm management.
With more and more scientific breeding, professional marketing, creating additional value through food processing  and tapping newer international markets, the aquaculture industry is likely to grow bigger. That would translate into better prospects for a career in this line.

Food Processing

Food processing ensures better management of food stocks. Food processing requires automated handling of food items, appropriate storage and preservation conditions and attractive packaging and efficient transportation.
Automation in handling is to ensure proper hygiene, while storage may need temperature control. Packaging should retain the freshness of the product and transportation should also be under the required temperature and humidity conditions.
India is one of the leading producers of fruits and vegetables in the world. Nearly one-fourth of this production is wasted because of inadequate storage facilities. The commercial value of processed food items is much higher, which can be exploited in international markets.  
As government is actively promoting investments in this sector, several professionally managed companies are entering this area. Therefore, the scope for job prospects is high. 


One of the professions which has picked up tremendously over the last few years, biotechnology has found wide applications. Ranging from developing new drugs and manufacture of food products to handling waste disposal, biotechnology is being used in diverse industries.
Biotechnology utilizes living systems, for research and development of products. 
Medicine – improving diagnosis and treatment of diseases
Foods – production of enzymes for food preservation, increasing nutritional value
Agriculture – eliminate diseases in crops, enhancing livestock production
Genetics – splitting genes, cloning and study of DNA structures
Pollution control and waste management
Exposure to biological sciences is a must.
Given the rate of newer applications of biotechnology, there is tremendous scope for a promising career across a host of industries. Opportunities are bright in pharma, chemical, agriculture and basic research would be plenty. 


A branch of biology, genetics deals with heredity. From one generation to another, personality traits are passed on from parents to their children, through DNA. 
Medicine – for study of genetically transmitted diseases
Agriculture – for breeding newer varieties of crops and livestock
Crime Detection – for identifying criminals through blood sample testing and other methods
Food Sector – to identify food contamination
Exposure to biological sciences is a must.
With wider implications on several industries of basic research in genetics, the applications of genetic information will only increase, in turn leading to more avenues for skilled professionals. 

Theme Tourism

Theme Tourism

Fashion Designing

One of the professions that has been consistently growing over the last decade. A fashion designer has to have an exposure to the latest trends and in some cases design some trend-setting dresses.

Always at the forefront of new fashions, good fashion designers are always sought out and given assignments. Local, national and international fashion shows are quite common now-a-days.

Qualities Required
A feel for different cloth textures
Good aesthetic sense
A feel for colours

How To Become One
Leading fashion technology institutes all over the country offer short-term and long-term courses. Admission into these is through a written test and interview.

Educational Background
A graduate degree

Boutiques, which stock new designs
Textile Companies, which hire fashion designers in order to know the pulse of current and future trends in designs
Films – to design costumes for characters
Event Management Firms – to design specific costumes for shows such as beauty contests and fashion shows

This career offers more scope for starting own business than for getting a job. Because it depends so much on individual creativity, many fashion designers have their own firms. Many celebrities in different walks of life have their own individual fashion designers, to design costumes to suit their image and personality.

Career Path

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UNITI Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. Founded by the Late Bhanu Sanghani who believed that the youth need to be empowered with information about opportunities that are available in the world of work.